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考研英语小作文写作步骤及要素

时间:2017-12-13 09:28:49 报考指导 我要投稿

考研英语小作文写作步骤及要素

  考研英语小作文是应用文写作,应用文写作其实难度不大,只要大家把握了写作要素和步骤,注意格式一般拿分没问题。小编为大家精心准备了考研英语小作文写作过程和重点,欢迎大家前来阅读。

考研英语小作文写作步骤及要素

  考研英语小作文写作过程及要点

  一、写作步骤

  第一步:找范文

  应用文考察的书信类型有十几种,每一种有不同的写作思路。考生需要先根据书信类型,找出至少两篇优秀的范文。

  第二步:改范文

  大部分考生找到的范文可能来自网络,或市面上的书籍。上面即使没有错误,但是容易落入俗套,跟其他考生写的一样。因此,要想得高分,还要根据应用文的写作技巧,对找到的范文进行修改。

  第三步:整理思路

  改完范文后整理出每一种书信的写作思路,例如感谢信的写作思路:第一段自我介绍,说明目的;第二段说明自己的困难—得到什么帮助—帮助后自己有哪些改善—说明帮助的重要性;第三段再一次表示感谢,希望偿还好意。整理写作思路后,无论遇到什么样的文章,都可以做到条理清晰,层次分明。

  第四步:背诵范文

  将改写完后的范文,以及每一种书信的写作思路,都背下来。

  二、写作要素

  ▶要素一:称呼

  ①知道姓名:Dear+Mr./Ms./Mrs.+姓氏,

  ②不知道姓名:Dear Sir or Madam.

  ③较为亲近:Dear +名字,(中国人用全名)

  ▶要素二:自我介绍

  ① My name is Li Ming,who is×××.

  ② I am Li Ming,who is ×××.

  ▶要素三:写作目的

  ①I am writing the letter in purpose of expressing my 主题名词 to you for 事件.

  翻译:我写这封信的目的是要表达我对(时间)的(主题名词)。

  ②The purpose of letter that I am writing is to express my 主题名词 to you for 事件.

  翻译:我写这封信的目的在于表达我对(事件)的(主题名词)。

  ▶要素四:信函内容

  ①原因:为什么写信,目的何在?

  ②建议:通过相应的建议,体现写作目的。

  ▶要素五:表达感谢

  ①Thank you for your time and consideration.感谢你的时间和耐心。

  ② My appreciation to you for your generous help is beyond words.对于你的慷慨帮助,我的感激之情溢于言表。

  ③ Words fail me when I want to express my sincere gratitude to you . 我难以用言语来表达对你真诚的感谢。

  ④ For all you have done for me ,my true gratitude is beyond the word's description.对你为我所做的一切,我真诚的感激溢于言表。

  ▶要素六:期待回信

  ①期待尽快回信:I am looking forward to your reply soon.

  ②期待满意答复:I Look forward to a favorable reply at your earliest convenience.

  ③期待对方关注:Your prompt attention to my letter would be highly appreciated.

  ▶要素七:落款

  ①万能用法:Yours sincerely,/Sincerely yours,

  ②私人信件:Best wishes,/Best regards,/Warmest regards,/You ever,/Yours,/Cordially,

  ③亲密关系Affectionately,/Yours Affectionately,/Love,/Lovely,

  /Cheers,/Your devoted friend,/Your loving father(mother,son...)

  ④公务信件:Yours faithfully,/Yours truly,/Yours respectfully,/Yours gratefully,/Yours cordially

  下面我们重点来看一下信函类的应用文写作:

  信函是交涉事物、增进了解、交流思想、联络感情的重要工具。就文体基本划分为正式和非正式文体,就种类可划分为私人、公务、社交、商务信件,在考研英语中,我们多以用途来划分和备考,即求职信、咨询信、感谢信、投诉信、建议信、邀请信等。我们以投诉信和感谢信为例,探讨写作方法。

  1.投诉信

  所谓投诉信是指针对某件不愉快的事情向责任人提出的投诉信件,信中多寻求解决方法,写作要求一般为:

  (1)首段开门见山指明所投诉的具体事件。

  (2)将问题清晰、简洁、公正地描述出来,指出事件带来的诸多不便。

  (3)感谢对方倾听投诉,同时清楚地表达你所想到的解决方法,期待对方尽早回复和解决问题。

  2.感谢信

  所谓感谢信是指因为某事件向收信人表明感激之意,写作要求一般为:

  (1)首先表明写作意图,开门见山表达谢意。

  (2)说明因何事向对方表示感谢,注意感情真挚。

  (3)感谢信一般为非官方,若为官方感谢信注意语言的严肃性。

  (4)结尾再次表达真挚感激之情。

  考研英语二段落排序题解题步骤及方法

  段落排序题

  段落排序题仍然是今年的备考重点,全部做对该题目的可能性微乎其微,所以就需要讲究方法,在考场上多快好省的确保拿到6~8分。拿分要领为:答对首段(如果没有给)和第二段,以及已知段后面的一段,即对2-3个,剩下的,不要做了,直接选一个肯定入选但不确定排哪里的答案。

  【解题步骤】

  1.阅读已经固定的段落

  如果固定段落是首末段,那么通过阅读首末段就可以得知整个文章的主旨大意,还要注意将已经确定的两个选项从卷子上划去,防止引起不必要的混乱;如果是首段+中间段,那也可以知道大意和文章部分内容信息。

  但是,如果首段没有要先选出首段。 2.如何选首段 首段的特点: 1)首句不含有代词,不含有总结性、过渡性词(转折、因果、顺延等) 2)一般不含有最高级、第一或最后意思的词语,因为首段没有比较的对象。 3.阅读选项,尤其是首尾句。给段落作初步的位置预知和组块 考生做不到一次性排出来,能排出来的就排,一时定不了的,做如下工作: 1)位置预知:含so, conclude等表示结束的词,可能作为尾段。但是也要警惕未必,总之还是要综合看。

  2)组块:

  有些段一看就觉得应该一个前一个后,比如A段末提到... there are two branches.F段末提到了,the first one is...。那么A和F就属于明显的总分关系,应该前后连贯。

  例如2010年的E段末出现了

  [E]... at the same sluggish pace as the retail market, but the figures, when added together, mask two opposing trends.而A段开头则是

  [A] The first and more important is the consumer's growing preference for eating out: consumption of food and drink in places other than homes has risen from about...

  所以明显的顺序是E >A。

  3)精确排列各个段落的顺序,利用其它关联词进行验证。

  【例题】2014年

  Directions:

  The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent text by choosing from the list A-G and filling them into the numbered boxes. Paragraphs A and E have been correctly placed. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  [A] Some archaeological sites have always been easily observable - for example, the Parthenon in Athens, Greece; the pyramids of Giza in Egypt; and the megaliths of Stonehenge in southern England. But these sites are exceptions to the norm. Most archaeological sites have been located by means of careful searching, while many others have been discovered by accident. Olduvai Gorge, an early hominid site in Tanzania, was found by a butterfly hunter who literally fell into its deep valley in 1911. Thousands of Aztec artifacts came to light during the digging of the Mexico City subway in the 1970s.

  [B] In another case, American archaeologists René Million and George Cowgill spent years systematically mapping the entire city of Teotihuacán in the Valley of Mexico near what is now Mexico City. At its peak around AD 600, this city was one of the largest human settlements in the world. The researchers mapped not only the city's vast and ornate ceremonial areas, but also hundreds of simpler apartment complexes where common people lived.

  [C] How do archaeologists know where to find what they are looking for when there is nothing visible on the surface of the ground? Typically, they survey and sample (make test excavations on) large areas of terrain to determine where excavation will yield useful information. Surveys and test samples have also become important for understanding the larger landscapes that contain archaeological sites.

  [D] Surveys can cover a single large settlement or entire landscapes. In one case, many researchers working around the ancient Maya city of Copán, Honduras, have located hundreds of small rural villages and individual dwellings by using aerial photographs and by making surveys on foot. The resulting settlement maps show how the distribution and density of the rural population around the city changed dramatically between AD 500 and 850, when Copán collapsed.

  [E] To find their sites, archaeologists today rely heavily on systematic survey methods and a variety of high-technology tools and techniques. Airborne technologies, such as different types of radar and photographic equipment carried by airplanes or spacecraft, allow archaeologists to learn about what lies beneath the ground without digging. Aerial surveys locate general areas of interest or larger buried features, such as ancient buildings or fields.

  [F] Most archaeological sites, however, are discovered by archaeologists who have set out to look for them. Such searches can take years. British archaeologist Howard Carter knew that the tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun existed from information found in other sites. Carter sifted through rubble in the Valley of the Kings for seven years before he located the tomb in 1922. In the late 1800s British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans combed antique dealers' stores in Athens, Greece. He was searching for tiny engraved seals attributed to the ancient Mycenaean culture that dominated Greece from the 1400s to 1200s BC. Evans's interpretations of these engravings eventually led him to find the Minoan palace at Knossos (Knosós), on the island of Crete, in 1900.

  [G] Ground surveys allow archaeologists to pinpoint the places where digs will be successful. Most ground surveys involve a lot of walking, looking for surface clues such as small fragments of pottery. They often include a certain amount of digging to test for buried materials at selected points across a landscape. Archaeologists also may locate buried remains by using such technologies as ground radar, magnetic-field recording, and metal detectors. Archaeologists commonly use computers to map sites and the landscapes around sites. Two- and three-dimensional maps are helpful tools in planning excavations, illustrating how sites look, and presenting the results of archaeological research.

  41. → A → 42. → E → 43. → 44. → 45.

  【解题步骤】

  1.精读首段:

  本题没有给出首段,需要考生先判断。具体方法要根据下步每段开头的'关键词而定。

  2.通读段首尾,模块组合+位置预知。

  根据上述的八大方法,找出各个段落段首/尾的关联词,具体分布为:

  [A] Some archaeological sites

  [B] In another case(明显代词+名词)

  [C] How.....?

  [D] ... in one case

  [E] ...find their sites....

  [F] most archaeological sites, however

  根据如上的关键词,考生首先能判断出来的是D和B的关系,根据代词应该是D>B。根据题干的矩阵41. → A → 42. → E → 43. → 44. → 45.

  D>B肯定不能让在41或者42,肯定是43,44,45中的两个。因此首段的可能性只能是C和G中的一个。而C句首又是明显的用特殊疑问句提出问题,符合首段的特点。

  D和B的特点是one和another的代词关系发生连贯。类似的连贯词还有one-the other,其复数形式是some - others,同样some和others会有些类似的同义词替换。根据这个原理,A和F也是前后关联A>F。因此42选F。

  最后三个空。E的开头提到了on systematic survey,各种研究调查。E的段落也提到了Aerial surveys(航空研究,空中研究)而G的开头则提到了ground survey(地面研究),正好是总分关系,所以顺序为E>G。因为43-45是GDB。所以答案为

  CFGDB

  考研英语答题顺序及时间分配

  ▶时间分配

  在做题时间的安排上,我们必须要遵守的一大原则是:时间分配与题目分值成正比。分值越高的题目,得分的机会相应也较大,若能留足时间,认真作答,自然更易摘得高分,与其他考生拉开差距。

  1.阅读是重中之重

  从上述原则出发,考研英语的传统阅读理解(40分)和作文(30分)共70分,是重中之重,要求我们为其留足时间。

  一般来说,四篇阅读理解文章,做题时间在60分钟到70分钟之间;建议每篇文章花费15分钟时间,如果有个别较难的文章,可以多花点时间,但是不要超过20分钟。

  2.大小作文需控制在40分钟以内

  作文时间则应该严格控制在40分钟之内,小作文15分钟,大作文25分钟足矣,其关键是要紧扣题目、层次清晰、思路明确,并辅以标准的语言表达。

  3.完型、翻译、新题型不宜花费太长时间

  剩下的三类题型,完型填空、翻译、新题型,各占10分。

  从近年的真题走势来看:新题型部分的难度并不是很大,20分钟足以又快又好地将其完成;翻译既考察翻译能力,又考察阅读技巧,有一定难度,考生普遍不高,建议将时间控制在20分钟以内;完形填空题量大,难度高,分值低,包括填涂答题卡在内,顶多花15分钟。

  ▶做题顺序

  考研英语的答题顺序要因人而异的,考研er可以根据自身答题情况来调整顺序,使自己达到良好的应试状态。但根据上述时间分配原则,并结合各类题型的特点,我们依然可以探寻出一条相对高效的“答题之路”。

  1.先写作文

  开考后,建议考生优先解答作文、阅读两大题型。关于作文,大部分考生都会在考前复习时准备不同题材的作文模板,趁着刚刚开考,记忆尚且清晰,审题结束后便可直接套用,相对来说容易写得顺畅,做下面的题也会更有信心。

  2.再写阅读

  阅读则因为涉及大量细节的比对、思考,要求考生在答题时精力集中,头脑清醒,也应安排在前面解答。

  3.完型、翻译、新题型后置

  翻译和新题型孰先孰后并无太大影响,考生可自行安排。

  完形填空应在答题结束前做,因为此时考试时间往往已是所剩不多,对于难度高、分值低的完型而言,大概看一看,直接填涂答题卡,或是索性蒙答案,与其他同学相比得分差距也不会很大。


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