As many as one thousand years ago in the Southwest, the Hopi and Zuni Indians of North America were building with adobe —— sun-baked brick plastered with mud. Their homes looked remarkably like modem apartment houses. Some were four stories high and contained quarters for perhaps thousand people, along with storerooms for grain and other goods. These buildings were usually put up against cliffs, both to make construction easier and for defense against enemies. They were really villages in themselves, as later Spanish explorers must have realized since they called them "pueblos", which is Spanish for town.
The people or the pueblos raised what are called "the three sisters" —— corn, beans, and squash. They made excellent pottery and wove marvelous baskets, some so fine that they could hold water. The Southwest has always been a dry country, where water is scarce. The Hopi and Zuni brought water from streams to their fields and gardens through irrigation ditches. Water was so important that it played a major role in their religion. They developed elaborate ceremonies and religious rituals to bring rain.
The way of life of less-settled groups was simpler and more strongly influenced by nature. Small tribes such as the Shoshone and Ute wandered the dry and mountainous lands between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific Ocean. They gathered seeds and hunted small animals such as rabbits and snakes. In the Far North the ancestors of today s Inuit hunted seals, walruses, and the great whales. They lived right on the frozen seas in shelters called igloos built of blocks of packed snow. When summer came, they fished for salmon and hunted the lordly caribou.
The Cheyenne, Pawnee, and Sioux tribes, known as the Plains Indians, lived on the grasslands between the rocky mountains and the Mississippi River. They hunted bison commonly called the buffalo. Its meat was the chief food of these tribes, and its hide was used to make their clothing and the covering of their tents and tipis .
1.What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The architecture of early American Indian buildings
(B) The movement of American Indians across North America
(C) Ceremonies and rituals of American Indians
(D) The way of life of American Indian tribes in early North America
2. According to the passage the Hopi and Zuni typically built their homes
(A) in valleys
(B) next to streams
(C) on open plains
(D) against cliffs
3. The word "They" in line 6 refers to
4.It can be inferred from the passage that the dwellings of the Hopi and Zuni were
(A) very small
(B) highly advanced
(C) difficult to defend
(D) quickly constructed
5.The author uses the phrase "the three sisters" in line8 refer to
(A) Hopi women
(B) family members
(C) important crops
(D) rain ceremonies
6. The word "scarce" in line10 is closest in meaning to
7.Which of the following is true of the Shoshone and Ute?
(A) They were not as settled as the Hopi and Zuni.
(B) They hunted caribou.
(C) They built their home with adobe.
(D) They did not have many religious .
8. According to the passage which of the following tribes lived in the grasslands?
(A) The Shoshone and Ute
(B) The Cheyenne and Sioux
(C) The Hopi and Zuni
(D) The Pawnee and Inuit
9. Which of the following animals was most important to the Plains Indians?
(A) The salmon
(B) The caribou
(C) The seal
(D) The buffalo
10. Which of the following is NOT mentioned by the author as a dwelling place of early
(A) Log cabins
(B) Adobe houses
11 . The author gives an explanation for all of the following words EXCEPT
12. The author groups North American Indians according to their
(A) tribes and geographical regions
Passage：Sculptures must, for example, be stable, which requires an understanding of the properties of mass, weight distribution, and stress. Paintings must have rigid stretchers so that the canvas will be taut, and the paint must not crack, deteriorate, or discolor. These are problems that must be overcome by the artist because they tend to intrude upon his or her conception of the work. For example, in the early Italian Renaissance, bronze statues of horses with a raised foreleg usually had a cannonball under that hoof. This was done because the cannonball was needed to support the weight of the leg. In other words, the demand of the laws of physics, not the sculptors aesthetic intentions, placed the ball there. That this device was a necessary structural compromise is clear from the fact that the cannonball disappeared when sculptors learned how to strengthen the internal structure of a statue with iron braces (iron being much stronger than bronze)
According to paragraph 2, sculptors in the Italian Renaissance stopped using cannonballs in bronze statues of horses because
A. they began using a material that made the statues weigh less
B. they found a way to strengthen the statues internally
C. the aesthetic tastes of the public had changed over time
D. the cannonballs added too much weight to the statues
托福阅读细节题考查的其实是精确定位， 托福阅读中的细节题其实不难，但前提是定位的点要对，做新 托福阅读读细节题，最重要的一点就是要尽量地去精确定位，大家在平时的练习中要注意把握做细节题的这一个规律。 例如：
Two species of deer have been prevalent in the Puget Sound area of Washington State in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. The black-tailed deer, a lowland, west-side cousin of the mule deer of eastern Washington, is now the most common. The other species, the Columbian white-tailed deer, in earlier times was common in the open prairie country, it is now restricted to the low, marshy islands and flood plains along the lower Columbia River.
According to paragraph 1, which of the following is true of the white-tailed deer of Puget Sound?
A. It is native to lowlands and marshes.
B. It is more closely related to the mule deer of eastern Washington than to other types of deer.
C. It has replaced the black-tailed deer in the open prairie.
D. It no longer lives in a particular type of habitat that it once occupied.
这是一个典型的 托福阅读细节题，在该题题干中，有的考生会选择Puget Sound作为关键词回原文定位，因为它是专有名词，在文中会比较显眼。但是如果一旦选择了这个地名，势必会定位在该段的.第一句话，托福细节题往往是定位在哪句就在哪句找答案，这样的话考生是选不出正确答案的，因为定位不精确。其实正确的关键词应该是white-tailed deer，这个用连字符连接的词在文章中也是比较醒目的，按该词定位应是该段最后一句话。所以根据它的意思应该选D项。其中A项与原句意思不符，B和C都与定位句信息无关。我们再来看另外一个否定事实 细节题的例子：
Plant communities assemble themselves flexibly, and their structure depends on the particular history of the area. Ecologists use the term succession to refer to the changes that happen in plant communities and ecosystems over time. The first community in a succession is called a pioneer community, while the long-lived community at the end of succession is called a climax community. Pioneer and successional plant communities are said to change over periods from 1 to 500 years. These changes—in plant numbers and the mix of species—are cumulative. Climax communities themselves change but over periods of time greater than about 500 years.
According to paragraph 1, which of the following is NOT true of climax communities?
A. They occur at the end of a succession.
B. They last longer than any other type of community.
C. The numbers of plants in them and the mix of species do not change
D. They remain stable for at least 500 years at a time.
这个题大家都会选择用climax communities去定位，但在定位过程中会出现很多问题。首先考生要学会跳跃式定位，即根据文章中特殊的标点符号以及最醒目的词来搜索我们真正需要的关键词。文中的particular是加了阴影的，succession是在引号里面的，都非常醒目，通过看这两个词我们会发现它们附近没有我们需要的东西;再比较突出的就是数字及破折号，在500的上方有a climax community，但它是单数，与题干关键词不完全匹配，细节题讲究的是精确定位，所以我们应该选择500斜下方的Climax communities，即该段的最后一句话。否定事实细节题的出题思路有两种：一是无中生有，即根据定位点的内容，四个选项只有一个没有提到，这种思路多适用于选项比较简短的题目;二是张冠李戴，即根据定位点的内容表述，只有一个选项与之矛盾，这种思路多适应于选项比较长的题目。就这个例题而言，根据定位的最后一句话，从表述上来说跟它相关的只有C和D两个选项，D项的意思与原句相符，而C项与原句矛盾，所以正确答案是C。