In 1972, a century after the first national park in the United States was established at Yellowstone, legislation was passed to create the National Marine Sanctuaries Program. The intent of this legislation was to provide protection to selected coastal habitats similar to that existing for land areas designated as national parks. The designation of an area's marine sanctuary indicates that it is a protected area, just as a national park is. People are permitted to visit and observe there, but living organisms and their environments may not be harmed or removed.
The National Marine Sanctuaries Program is administered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, a branch of the United States Department of Commerce. Initially, 70 sites were proposed as candidates for sanctuary status. Two and a half decades later, only fifteen sanctuaries had been designated, with half of these established after 1978. They range in size from the very small (less than 1 square kilometer) Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary in American Samoa to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary in California, extending over 15,744 square kilometers.
The National Marine Sanctuaries Program is a crucial part of new management practices in which whole communities of species, and not just individual species, are offered some degree of protection from habitat degradation and overexploitation. Only in this way can a reasonable degree of marine species diversity be maintained in a setting that also maintains the natural interrelationships that exist among these species.
Several other types of marine protected areas exist in the United States and other countries. The National Estuarine Research Reserve System, managed by the United States government, includes 23 designated and protected estuaries. Outside the United States, marine protected-area programs exist as marine parks, reserves, and preserves. Over 100 designated areas exist around the periphery of the Caribbean Sea. Others range from the well-known Australian Great Barrier Reef Marine Park to lesser-known parks in countries such as Thailand and Indonesia, where tourism is placing growing pressures on fragile coral reef systems. As state, national, and international agencies come to recognize the importance of conserving marine biodiversity, marine projected areas. whether as sanctuaries, parks, or estuarine reserves, will play an increasingly important role in preserving that diversity.
1. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) Differences among marine parks, sanctuaries, and reserves
(B) Various marine conservation programs
(C) International agreements on coastal protection
(D) Similarities between land and sea protected environments
2. The word "intent" in line 3 is closest in meaning to
3. The word "administered" in line 8 is closest in meaning to
4. The word "these" in line 11 refers to
5. The passage mentions the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (lines 13-14) as an example of a sanctuary that
(A) is not well know
(B) covers a large area
(C) is smaller than the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary
(D) was not originally proposed for sanctuary status
6. According to the passage , when was the National Marine Sanctuaries Program established?
(A) before 1972
(B) after 1987
(C) one hundred years before national parks were established
(D) one hundred years after Yellowstone National Park was established
7. According to the passage , all of the following are achievements of the National Marine Sanctuaries Program EXCEPT
(A) the discovery of several new marine organisms
(B) the preservation of connections between individual marine species
(C) the protection of coastal habitats
(D) the establishment of areas where the public can observe marine life
8. The word "periphery" in line 24 is closest in meaning to
(C) warm habitat
(D) outer edge
9. The passage mentions which of the following as a threat to marine areas outside the United States?
(A) limitations in financial support
(B) the use of marine species as food
(C) variability of the climate
(D) increases in tourism
A number of factors related to the voice reveal the personality of the speaker. The first is the broad area of communication, which includes imparting information by use of language, communicating with a group or an individual, and specialized communication through performance. A person conveys thoughts and ideas through choice of words, by a tone of voice that is pleasant or unpleasant, gentle or harsh, by the rhythm that is inherent within the language itself, and by speech rhythms that are flowing and regular or uneven and hesitant, and finally, by the pitch and melody of the utterance. When speaking before a group, a person's tone may indicate unsureness or fright, confidence or calm. At interpersonal levels, the tone may reflect ideas and feelings over and above the words chosen, or may belie them. Here the conversant's tone can consciously or unconsciously reflect intuitive sympathy or antipathy, lack of concern or interest, fatigue, anxiety, enthusiasm or excitement, all of which are usually discernible by the acute listener. Public performance is a manner of communication that is highly specialized with its own techniques for obtaining effects by voice and /or gesture. The motivation derived from the text, and in the case of singing, the music, in combination with the performer's skills, personality, and ability to create empathy will determine the success of artistic, political, or pedagogic communication.
Second, the voice gives psychological clues to a person's self-image, perception of others, and emotional health. Self-image can be indicated by a tone of voice that is confident, pretentious, shy, aggressive, outgoing, or exuberant, to name only a few personality traits. Also the sound may give a clue to the facade or mask of that person, for example, a shy person hiding behind an overconfident front. How a speaker perceives the listener's receptiveness, interest, or sympathy in any given conversation can drastically alter the tone of presentation, by encouraging or discouraging the speaker. Emotional health is evidenced in the voice by free and melodic sounds of the happy, by constricted and harsh sound of the angry, and by dull and lethargic qualities of the depressed.
1. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The function of the voice in performance
(B) The connection between voice and personality
(C) Communication styles
(D) The production of speech
2. What does the author mean by stating that, "At interpersonal levels, tone may reflect ideas and
feelings over and above the words chosen" (lines 9-10)?
(A) Feelings are expressed with different words than ideas are.
(B) The tone of voice can carry information beyond the meaning of words.
(C)A high tone of voice reflects an emotional communication.
(D) Feelings are more difficult to express than ideas.
3. The word "Here" in line 10 refers to
(A) interpersonal interactions
(B) the tone
(C) ideas and feelings
(D) words chosen
4. The word "derived" in line 15 is closest in meaning to
5. Why does the author mention "artistic, political, or pedagogic communication" in line 17?
(A)As examples of public performance
(B)As examples of basic styles of communication
(C) To contrast them to singing
(D) To introduce the idea of self-image
6.According to the passage , an exuberant tone of voice, may be an indication of a person's
(A) general physical health
(C) ability to communicate
(D) vocal quality
7.According to the passage , an overconfident front may hide
8. The word "drastically" in line 24 is closest in meaning to
9. The word "evidenced" in line 25 is closest in meaning to
10.According to the passage , what does a constricted and harsh voice indicate?
The year 1850 may be considered the beginning of a new epoch in America art, with respect to the development of watercolor painting. In December of that year, a group of thirty artists gathered in the studio of John Falconer in New York City and drafted both a constitution and bylaws, establishing The Society for the Promotion of Painting in Water Color. In addition to securing an exhibition space in the Library Society building in lower Manhattan, the society founded a small school for the instruction of watercolor painting. Periodic exhibitions of the members' paintings also included works by noted English artists of the day, borrowed from embryonic private collections in the city. The society's activities also included organized sketching excursions along the Hudson River. Its major public exposure came in 1853, when the society presented works by its members in the "Industry of All Nations" section of the Crystal Palace Exposition in New York.
The society did not prosper, however, and by the time of its annual meeting in 1854 membership had fallen to twenty-one. The group gave up its quarters in the Library Society building and returned to Falconer's studio, where it broke up amid dissension. No further attempt to formally organize the growing numbers of watercolor painters in New York City was made for more than a decade. During that decade, though, Henry Warren's Painting in Water Color was published in New York City in 1856 — the book was a considerable improvement over the only other manual of instruction existing at the time, Elements of Graphic Art, by Archibald Roberson,published in 1802 and by the 1850's long out of print.
In 1866 the NationalAcademy of Design was host to an exhibition of watercolor painting in its elaborate neo-Venetian Gothic building on Twenty-Third Street in New York City. The exhibit was sponsored by an independent group called The Artists Fund Society. Within a few months of this event, forty-two prominent artists living in and near New York City founded The American Society of Painters in Water Colors.
1. This passage is mainly about
(A) the most influential watercolor painters in the mid-1800's
(B) efforts to organize watercolor painters in New York City during the mid-1800's
(C) a famous exhibition of watercolor paintings in New York City in the mid-1800's
(D) styles of watercolor painting in New York City during the mid-1800's
2. The year 1850 was significant in the history of watercolor painting mainly because
(A) a group of artists established a watercolor painting society
(B) watercolor painting was first introduced to New York City
(C) John Falconer established his studio for watercolor painters
(D) The first book on watercolor painting was published
3. The word "securing" in line 5 is closest in meaning to
4. All of the following can be inferred about the Society for the promotion of Painting in
(A) The society exhibited paintings in lower Manhattan.
(B) Instruction in watercolor painting was offered by members of the society
(C) The society exhibited only the paintings of its members.
(D) Scenes of the Hudson River appeared often in the work of society members.
5. The exhibition at the Crystal Palace of the works of the Society for the Promotion of Painting in
Watercolor was significant for which of the following reasons?
(A) It resulted in a dramatic increase in the popularity of painting with watercolor.
(B) It was the first time an exhibition was funded by a private source.
(C) It was the first important exhibition of the society's work.
(D) It resulted in a large increase in the membership of the society.
6. The word "it" in line 15 refers to
7. Which of the following is true of watercolor painters in New York City in the late 1850's?
(A) They increased in number despite a lack of formal organization.
(B) They were unable to exhibit their paintings because of the lack of exhibition space.
(C) The Artists Fund Society helped them to form The American Society of Painters in WaterColors.
(D) They formed a new society because they were not allowed to join groups run by other kinds ofartists.
8. Henry Warren's Painting in Water Color was important to artists because it
(A) received an important reward
(B) was the only textbook published that taught painting
(C) was much better than an earlier published fundamental of instruction
(D) attracted the interest of art collectors
9. The word "considerable" in line 19 is closest in meaning to
10. The year 1866 was significant for watercolor painting for which of the following reasons?
(A) Elements of GraphicArt was republished.
(B) Private collections of watercolors were first publicly exhibited.
(C) The neo-Venetian Gothic building on Twenty-Third Street in New York City was built.
(D) The NationalAcademy of Design held an exhibition of watercolor paintings.
11. The word "prominent" in line 25 is closest in meaning to
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The observation of the skies has played a special part in the lives and cultures of peoples since the earliest of times. Evidence obtained from a site known as the Hole in the Rock, in Papago Park in Phoenix, Arizona, indicates that it might have been used as an observatory by a prehistoric people known as the Hohokam.
The physical attributes of the site allow its use as a natural calendar/clock. The "hole" at Hole in the Rock is formed by two large overhanging rocks coming together at a point, creating a shelter with an opening large enough for several persons to pass through. The northeast-facing overhang has a smaller opening in its roof. It is this smaller hole that produces the attributes that may have been used as a calendar/clock.
Because of its location in the shelter's roof, a beam of sunlight can pass through this second hole and cast a spot onto the shelter's wall and floor. This spot of light travels from west to east as the sun moves across the sky. It also moves from north to south and back again as the Earth travels around the Sun, the west-to-east movement could have been used to establish a daily clock, much like a sundial, while the north-to-south movement could have been used to establish a seasonal calendar.
The spot first appears and starts down the surface of the wall of the shelter at different times of the morning depending on the time of the year. The spot grows in size from its first appearance until its maximum size is achieved roughly at midday. It then continues its downward movement until it reaches a point where it jumps to the floor of the shelter. As the Sun continues to move to the west, the spot continues to move across the shelter floor and down the butte, or hill, toward a group of small boulders. If a person is seated on a certain one of these rocks as the spot reaches it, the Sun can be viewed through the calendar hole. This occurs at different times in the afternoon depending on the time of year.
1. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) observations of the stars by ancient people
(B) rock formations of Arizona
(C) a site used by ancient people to measure time
(D) the movement of the earth around the Sun
2. The word "obtained" in line 2 is closest in meaning to
3. The word "attributes" in line 5 is closest in meaning to
4. The word "its" in line 10 refers to
5. The word "establish" in line 15 is closest in meaning to
6. Which of the following is NOT true of the spot of light?
(A) It is caused by sunlight passing through a hole.
(B) It travels across the roof of the shelter.
(C) Its movement is affected by the position of the Sun.
(D) It movement could have been used to estimate the time of day.
7. From which of the following can be the time of year be determined?
(A) The movement of the spot of light from west to east
(B) The speed with which the spot of light moves
(C) The movement of the spot of light from north to south
(D) The size of the sport of light at midday
8. The word "roughly" in line 18 is closest in meaning to
9. The passage mentions that the Hole in the Rock was used as all of the following EXCEPT
(A) a calendar
(B) a home
(C) a clock
(D) an observatory
10. Which of the following can be inferred from the fourth paragraph?
(A) The boulders are located below the rock shelter.
(B) The person seated on the rock cannot see the shelter.
(C)After it passes the boulders, the spot of light disappears.
(D) The spot of light is largest when it first appears.