1. Local crafts people-sign, coach, and house painters-began to paint portraits as a profitable sideline; sometimes a talented man or woman who began by sketching family members gained a local reputation and was besieged with requests for portraits; artists found it worth their while to pack their paints, canvases, and brushes and to travel the countryside, often combining house decorating with portrait painting.
The word "sketching" is closest in meaning to which of following?
2. Both the number and the percentage of people in the United States involved in nonagricultural pursuits expanded rapidly during the half century following the Civil War, with some of the most dramatic increases occurring in the domains of transportation, manufacturing, and trade and distribution.
The word "domains" is closest in meaning to which of following?
3. The development of the railroad and telegraph systems during the middle third of the nineteenth century led to significant improvements in the speed, volume, and regularity of shipments and communications, making possible a fundamental transformation in the production and distribution of goods.
The word "fundamental" is closest in meaning to which of following?
4. To be sure, there were still small workshops, where skilled craftspeople manufactured products ranging from newspapers to cabinets to plumbing fixtures.
The word "skilled" is closest in meaning to which of following?
5. And there were factories in occupations such as metalwork where individual contractors presided over what were essentially handicraft proprietorships that coexisted within a single building.
The words "presided over" in line 20 are closest in meaning to
(B) led to
(C) worked in
6. Objects in the universe show a variety of shapes: round planets (some with rings) , tailed comets, wispy cosmic gas and dust clouds, ringed nebulae, pinwheel-shaped spiral galaxies, and so on. But none of the shapes on this list describes the largest single entities in the universe.
The word "entities" is closest in meaning to which of following?
7. Stone carvers engraved their motifs of skulls and crossbones and other religious icons of death into the gray slabs that we still see standing today in old burial grounds.
The word "motifs" is closest in meaning to which of following?
8. Although they often achieved expression and formal excellence in their generally primitive style, they remained artisans skilled in the craft of carving and constituted a group distinct from what we normally think of as "sculptors" in today’s use of the word.
The word "distinct" is closest in meaning to which of following?
9. On the rare occasion when a fine piece of sculpture was desired, Americans turned to foreign sculptors, as in the 1770’s when the cities of New York and Charleston, South Carolina, commissioned the Englishman Joseph Wilton to make marble statues of William Pill.
The word "rare" is closest in meaning to which of following?
10. Desert mammals also depart from the normal mammalian practice of maintaining a constant body temperature. Instead of trying to keep down the body temperature deep inside the body, which would involve the expenditure of water and energy, desert mammals allow their temperatures to rise to what would normally be fever height, and temperatures as high as 46 degrees Celsius have been measured in Grant’s gazelles.
The word "maintaining" is closest in meaning to which of following?
1.__of pottery is dependent on the durability of clay after firing.
When to make
It is making
2.Pig iron， wrought iron， and steel contain iron carbides made up of __ of carbon.
amounts are different
different amounts that
which amounts are different
3.The Arctic fox is found throughout the Arctic ， usually on tundra or mountains __ the sea.
by which near
4.The midge __ to any of several species of small flies， refers to a mosquito－like insect with slender wings and body， long legs， and antennae.
which a term applied
a term applied
is a term applied
applied a term
5. The face is the most __ of a human being.
part is distinctly
distinction in part
part of distinction
6.The chemical facts __ as a by－product of their search for gold became the basis for modem chemistry.
that had been accumulated by alchemists
were accumulated by alchemists
alchemists accumulating them
had been accumulated by alchemists
7.The fluoroscope makes __ for medical doctors to view a silhouette of the bones and internal organs of a patients body.
it is possible
8.The second－oldest continuously occupied governors mansion in the United States __ Jackson， Mississippi.
the location in
is the location
is located in
9.A television camera produces an image by convening __ receives into a series of bright and dark dots.
10.In so－called nonfiction novels， a documentary style is combined with fictional techniques __actual events and people.
that they describe
and in describing
11.Managers often receive considerable training in the technical aspects of their jobs __ very little in the people management aspects.
12.Areas of fertile soil called deltas， usually __ are formed by mud deposited at the mouth of a river.
triangular in shape
their shape is triangular
they have a triangular shape
13.Though a respected educator， Alexander Graham Bell __ the inventor of the telephone.
as is best known
best known as is
is best known as
best is known as
14. Not until the First World War __ to improve the road system in the United States.
a determined effort was made
made a determined effort
when a determined effort was made
was a determined effort made
15. Often invisible， always in motion， gas is __ of matter.
the state is most energetic
stating the most energetic
the most energetic state
the state that most energetic