考研英语 百分网手机站

考研英语翻译八大技巧

2018-01-09 07:50:24 1190 1195

  重译法

  在翻译中,有时为了忠实于原文,不得不重复某些词语,否则就不能忠实表达原文的意思。重译法有如下三大作用:一是为了明确;二是为了强调;三是为了生动。

  We have advocated the principle of peaceful coexistence, which is now growing more and more popular among the nations of Asia and Africa.

  译文:___________________________________________________

  增译法

  为了使译文忠实地表达原文的意思与风格并使译文合乎表达习惯,必须增加一些词语。

  A new kind aircraft-small, cheap, pilotless -is attracting increasing attention.

  译文:___________________________________________________

  减译法

  和其他一切事物一样,翻译也是有增必有减。理解了增译法之后也就明白了减译法,它是增译法的反面。

  These developing countries cover vast territories, encompass a large population and abound in natural resources.

  译文:___________________________________________________

  词类转译法

  在翻译时,由于两种语言在语法和习惯表达上的差异,在保证原文意思不变的情况下,译文必须改变词类,这就是词类转译法,这种方法不仅指词类的改变,而且还包括词类作用的改变和一定词序的变化。

  (1)a.→v.

  The manager is grateful to the customers for their valuable suggestions.

  译文:___________________________________________________

  (2)n.→a.

  In all this great serenity of ocean it is seldom that we espy so much as another ship.

  译文:___________________________________________________

  还有其它词类转移的情况,这里将不再一一赘述,总之,词类转移要遵守忠实与通顺的原则。

  词序调整法

  词序调整法的英语inversion一词,不能译成“倒译”、“倒译法”或“颠倒词序”之类,否则容易和语法中的“倒装”概念相混淆。inversion作为一种翻译技巧,其意思为:翻译时对词序作必要或必不可少的改变,并不只是纯粹的颠倒词序或倒装。

  It was a keen disappointment that I had to postpone the visit which I had intended to pay to China in January.

  译文:___________________________________________________

  正义反译,反义正译

  negation在语法与翻译两个不同学科中含义不尽相同。作为一种翻译技巧,它主要指在翻译实践中,为了使译文忠实而合乎语言习惯地传达原文的意思,有时必须把原文中的肯定说法变成译文中的否定说法,或把原文中的否定说法变成译文中的肯定说法。

  (1) 需要正义反译的词和短语有:deny“否决,否定→不给予”;miss“错过→没赶上(交通工具);没听(看到)或没听(看懂)”;live up to one’s expectations“不(没)辜负……的希望”;divert attention from“将注意力从……移开→没有意识到”;be absent“未出席;没来”;far from“远非;完全不”;final“最终的→不可改变的”;idly“漫不经心地;无所事事地”;be at a loss “不知所措”;rather than/instead of“而不是”;absent-minded“心不在焉的”;but for“要不是;如果没有”等。

  The scientists made a solemn pledge at the conference, saying, “We’ll forever live up to what our Party expects of us.”

  译文:___________________________________________________

  (2)需要反义正译的词汇是含有no或not的一些短语,如:no less than“实在是;正如;不少于”;no less…than“和……一样;不亚于”;no other than“只有;正是”;none other than(用以加强语气)“正是;恰恰是;不是别人,正是……”;nothing but“只有(是);只不过”;no choice but“别无选择只(好)得”;以及一些带有词缀的词,如:unfold“展开;呈现”;disappear“消失;失踪”;carelessly“马马虎虎地;粗心地”等。

  From the passage we learn that an invention will not benefit the inventor unless it is reduced to commercial practice.

  译文:____________________________________________________

  分译法

  分译法主要用于长句的翻译。为了使译文忠实、易懂,有时不得不把一个长句译成两句或更多的句子。这是分译法的主要内容,此处所谓的句子不在于结尾处用句号,而在于有无主谓结构,一般说来,含有一个主谓结构的语言部分就是一个句子。这种句子大是含有定语从句的句子,在英汉互译时,尤其在英译汉中,如能将定语从句译成前置定语,则尽量避免其他译法;如译成前置定语不合适,一般是分译成另外一个独立的句子或另一种从句,如译成状语从句等。

  It is obvious that his period in office was marked by steep rise in his country’s oil revenues and the beginning of a social-political crisis brought out by wide-scale misuse of the $25 billion a year earning from oil.

  译文:_____________________________________________________

  语态变换法

  这里所说的语态是指主动语态和被动语态,这两种语态在英汉两种语言中的使用情况是很不相同的,被动语态的使用是科技文章的主要特点之一,其用法十分广泛。在汉语中,我们可用“被、让、把、遭、换、使、由、受到,为……所”等词来表示被动。但在汉语中的被动语态使用频率比英文要低得多。因此,在遇到被动语态时,应遵循汉语的习惯,如译成被动语态不通,则译成主动语态。

  (1)保留其被动语

  Goodyear, an American, had been trying for years to find a way in which rubber could be made hard, non-sticky, and yet elastic.

  译文:_____________________________________________________

  (2)将被动改为主动

  ① 翻译成汉语的无主语,如果被动句不含by的话。

  If bad weather is expected, the forecaster must be able to suggest another airport within the range of the aircraft where the weather will be suitable for landing.

  译文:_____________________________________________________

  ②将that引导的主语从句仍然译为宾语,但要加上表泛指的词语(如人们、大家、我们等)做主语。如:

  It is hoped that…

  It is reported that…

  It is said that…

  It is supposed that…

  It must be admitted that…

  It must be pointed out that…

  It is asserted that…

  It is believed that…

  It is well known that…

  It will be said that…

  It will be seen from this that…

  It was told that…

  I was told that…

  It may be said…

  It may be argued that…

  注意:如果被动结构既有过去分词又有by(或in, for)引导的介词短语,这时将动作的发出者译成主语。如:It is imagined by many that…

[考研英语翻译八大技巧]相关文章:

1.考研英语翻译常用八大技巧

2.考研英语翻译技巧

3.考研英语翻译应试技巧

4.考研英语翻译的技巧

5.考研英语翻译的答题技巧

6.考研英语翻译常用8大技巧

7.考研英语翻译有什么技巧

8.考研英语翻译答题的技巧

9.考研英语翻译技巧反译法点拨

10.考研英语翻译有哪些技巧