It is difficult to imagine what life would be like without memory. The meanings of. thousands of everyday perceptions , the bases for the decisions we make, and the roots of our habits and skills are to be found in our past experiences, which are brought into the present by memory.
Memory can be defined as the capacity to keep information available for later use. It includes not only “remembering” things like arithmetic or historical facts, but also involving any change in the way an animal typically behaves. Memory is involved when a rat gives up eating grain because he has sniffed something suspicious in the grain pile. Memory is also involved when a six-year-old child learns to swing a baseball bat.
Memory exists not only in humans and animals but also in some physical objects and machines. Computers, for example, contain devices for storing data for later use. It is interesting to compare the memory-storage capacity of a computer with that of a human being. The instant-access memory of a large computer may hold up to 100，000 “ words” ——ready for instant use. An average U.S. teenager probably recognizes the meaning of about 100，000 words of English. However, this is but a fraction of the total amount of information which the teenager has stored. Consider, for example, the number of faces and places that the teenager can recognize on sight.
The use of words is the basis of the advanced problem-solving intelligence of human beings.
A large part of a person‘ s memory is in terms of words and combinations of words.
1. According to the passage, memory is considered to be
A. the basis for decision making and problem solving
B. an ability to store experiences for future use
C. an intelligence typically possessed by human beings
D. the data mainly consisting of words and combinations of words
2. The comparison made between the memory capacity of a large computer and that of a human being shows that
A. the computer‘ s memory has a little bigger capacity than a teenager’ s
B. the computer‘ s memory capacity is much smaller that an adult human being’ s
C. the computer‘ s memory capacity is much smaller even than a teenager’ s
D. both A and B
3. The whole passage implies that
A. only human beings have problem-solving intelligence
B. a person‘ s memory is different from a computer’ s in every respect
C. animals are able to solve only very simple problems
D. animals solve problems by instincts rather than intelligence
4. The phrase “in terms of” in the last sentence can best be replaced by
A. “in connection with”
B. “expressed by”
D. “by means of”
5. The topic of the passage is：
A. What would life be like without memory ?
B. Memory is of vital importance to life.
C. How is a person‘ s memory different from an animal’ s or a computer‘ s?
D. What is contained in memory ?
【答案】B C C B B
Packaging is a very important form of advertising. A package can sometimes motivate people to buy products. For example, a little child might ask for a breakfast food contained in a box with a picture of a TV character. The child is more interested in the picture than in breakfast food. Pictures for children to color or cut out, games printed on a package, or a small gift inside a box also motivate many children to buy products - or to ask their parents to buy for them.
Some packages suggest that a buyer will get something for nothing. Food products sold in reusable containers are examples of this. Although a similar product in plain container might cost less, people often prefer to buy the product in a reusable glass or dish, because they believe the container is free. However, the cost of the container is added to the cost of the product.
The size of a package also motivates a buyer. Maybe the package has "Economy Size" or "Family Size" printed on it. This suggests that the larger size has the most product for the least money. But that is not always true. To find it out, a buyer has to know how the product is sold and the price of the basic unit.
The information on the package should provide some answers. But the important thing for any buyer to remember is that a package is often an advertisement. The words and pictures do not tell the whole story. Only the product inside can do that.
1. "A buyer will get something for nothing" in paragraph 2 may probably mean _____.
A) a buyer will not get what he pays for
B)a buyer will get more than what he pays for
C) a buyer will get something useful free of charge
D) a buyer will get more but pay less
2. From the pasage we know the buyer pays more attention to _____.
A) the size of a container
B) a container with attractive picture
C) a well-designed container
D) a plain container with low cost
3. What suggestion does the writer give in the passage?
A) Its not good to buy the product which is sold in a glass or dish.
B) The quality of a container has nothing to do with the quality of the product.
C) The best choice for a buyer is to buy a product in a plain package.
D) A buyer should buy what he needs most rather than a well-designed package.
【答案精解】D. 推理题。最后一段，作者提示读者The words and pictures do not tell the whole story. Only the product inside Call do that.也就是说不要太相信广告词和图，要看产品本身。
4. Which of the following sentences is NOT true according to the passage?
A) In fact glasses or dishes used for packaging do not cost money at all.
B)“Family Size”printed on the package means that it is rather economic.
C) To a child, even to an adult, the form is far more important than the content.
D) Words and pictures written on the package are thought to be an advertisement.
【答案精解】A. 判断题。第二段最后一句However，the cost of the container is added to the cost of the product，说明所有包装的成本都是算入产品价格的，选项A说包装的玻璃碟子不花钱，这是不正确的。
5. What do you think is the best title for the passage?
A) How to Package a Product.
B) How to Make an Advertisement.
C) How to Sell Product.
D) How to Attract More Buyers.
The way people hold to the belief that a fun filled, pain free life equals happiness actually reduces their chances of ever attaining real happiness. If fun and pleasure are equal to happiness then pain must be equal to unhappiness. But in fact, the opposite is true: more often than not things that lead to happiness involve some pain.
As a result, many people avoid the very attempts that are the source of true happiness. They fear the pain inevitably brought by such things as marriage, raising children, professional achievement, religious commitment, self-improvement.
Ask a bachelor why he resists marriage even though he finds dating to be less and less satisfying. If he is honest he will tell you that he is afraid of making a commitment. For commitment is in fact quite painful. The single life is filled with fun, adventure, excitement. Marriage has such moments, but they are not its most distinguishing features.
Couples with infant children are lucky to get a whole nights sleep or a three day vacation. I dont know any parent who would choose the fun to describe raising children. But couples who decide not to have children never know the joys of watching a child grow up or of playing with a grandchild.
Understanding and accepting that true happiness has nothing to do with fun is one of the most liberating realizations. It liberates time: now we can devote more hours to activities that can genuinely increase our happiness. It liberates money: buying that new car or those fancy clothes that will do nothing to increase our happiness now seems pointless. And it liberates us from envy: we now understand that all those who are always having so much fun actually may not be happy at all.
1.According to the author, a bachelor resists marriage chiefly because ______.
A. he is reluctant to take on family responsibilities
B. he believes that life will be more cheerful if he remains single
C. he finds more fun in dating than in marriage
D. he fears it will put an end to all his fun adventure and excitement
【精析】根据文中第三段第二句If he is honest he will tell you that he is afraid of making a commitment. For commitment is in fact quite painful.可知单身汉不愿意结婚的主要原因是他不愿承担婚姻的责任，故A正确。
2.Raising children, in the authors opinion, is ______.
A. a moral duty
B. a thankless job
C. a rewarding task
D. a source of inevitable pain
【精析】根据文中第四段But couples who decide not to have children never know the joys of watching a child grow up or of playing with a grandchild.可推测出作者对抚养孩子这件事是持赞赏的态度的.
3.From the last paragraph, we learn that envy sometimes stems from ______.
【精析】根据文中最后一段And it liberates us from envy: we now understand that all those who are always having so much fun actually may not be happy at all.可知整天很开心的人不一定幸福，我们认为他们幸福只是我们自己的误解，所以我们会忌妒，就是源于误解。故选B.
4.To understand what true happiness is one must ______.
A. have as much fun as possible during ones lifetime
B. make every effort to liberate oneself from pain
C. put up with pain under all circumstances
D. be able to distinguish happiness from fun
【精析】根据文中最后一段Understanding and accepting that true happiness has nothing to do with fun is one of the most liberating realizations.可知理解和接受真正的幸福与开心无关，明白了这一点是最具有解放意识的，所以区别开幸福与开心才能理解什么是真正的幸福，故选D.
5.What is the author trying to tell us?
A. Happiness often goes hand in hand with pain.
B. One must know how to attain happiness.
C. It is important to make commitments.
D. It is pain that leads to happiness.
【精析】根据文中第一段more often than not things that lead to happiness involve some pain.可知幸福总是与痛苦相伴的，故选A.