When Jules Verne wrote Journey to the Center of the Earth in 1864， there were many conflicting theories about the nature of the Earth's interior. Some geologists thought that it contained a highly compressed ball of incandescent gas， while others suspected that it consisted of separate shells， each made of a different material. Today， well over a century later， there is still little direct evidence of what lies beneath our feet. Most of our knowledge of the Earth's interior comes not from mines or boreholes， but from the study of seismic waves - powerful pulses of energy released by earthquakes.
The way that seismic waves travel shows that the Earth's interior is far from uniform. The continents and the seabed are formed by the crust - a thin sphere of relatively light， solid rock. Beneath the crust lies the mantle， a very different layer that extends approximately halfway to the Earth's center. There the rock is the subject of a battle between increasing heat and growing pressure.
In its high levels， the mantle is relatively cool; At greater depths， high temperatures make the rock behave more like a liquid than a solid. Deeper still， the pressure is even more intense， preventing the rock from melting in spite of a higher temperature.
Beyond a depth of around 2，900 kilometers， a great change takes place and the mantle gives way to the core. Some seismic waves cannot pass through the core and others are bent by it. From this and other evidence， geologists conclude that the outer core is probably liquid， with a solid center. It is almost certainly made of iron， mixed with smaller amounts of other elements such as nickel.
The conditions in the Earth's core make it a far more alien world than space. Its solid iron heart is subjected to unimaginable pressure and has a temperature of about 9，000oF. Although scientists can speculate about its nature， neither humans nor machines will ever be able to visit it.
1. The word "conflicting" in line 2 is closest in meaning to
2. What is today's richest source of information about the Earth's interior for geologists?
(C) Seismic waves
3. The word "There" in line 16 refers to the
(D) Earth's center.
4. Which of the following is a primary characteristic of the Earth's mantle?
(A) Light， solid rock
(B) Uniformity of composition
(C) Dramatically increasing pressure
(D) Compressed， incandescent gas
5. The phrase "gives way to" in line 24 is closest in meaning to
(A) runs along
(B) rubs against
(C) turns into
(D) floats on
6. The word "it" in line 26 refers to
7. Why does the author state in line 30-31 that the Earth's core is "more alien" than space?
(A) Government funds are not available to study the Earth's core.
(B) Scientists aren't interested in the characteristics of the Earth's core.
(C) It is impossible to go to the Earth's core to do research.
(D) The Earth's core is made of elements that are dangerous to humans.
8. The word "speculate" in line 33 is closest in meaning to
Despite the road improvements of the turnpike era (1790- 1830)。 Americans continued as in colonial times to depend wherever possible on water routes for travel and transportation. The larger rivers， especially the Mississippi and the Ohio， became increasingly useful as steamboats grew in number and improved in design.
River boats carried to New Orleans the corn and other crops of northwestern farmers， the cotton and tobacco of southwestern planters. From New Orleans， ships took the cargoes on to eastern seaports. Neither the farmers of the west nor the merchants of the east were completely satisfied with this pattern of trade. Farmers could get better prices for their crops if the alternative existed of sending them directly eastward to market and merchants could sell larger quantities of their manufactured goods if these could be transported more directly and more economically to the west.
1. Forms of locomotion for animals讲述不同动物的迁移方式
2. About Changes of American literature after independence from Europe从欧洲独立之后的美国文学的发展变化
3. About animals gathering honey动物收集蜂蜜
4. About an experiment that disapproves a popular theory that explains origins of species, atmosphere, and organic substances一个反对主流理论的实验，关于物种、大气和有机物质的起源
5. About two usages of fired bricks in Mesopotamia美索不达米亚的bricks的两种用途
6. About underground water地下水
7. Plant diseases植物疾病
1. About a student consulting online library学生咨询线上借书的事情
2. About a student seeking help from a professor to revise the speech学生找教授帮忙修改演讲稿的意见
3. About a student discussing with a tutor about an activity学生找老师商量一个活动是否能够执行
1. About Arts, three ways to duplicate Vincent van Gogh's paintings艺术类：复制梵高作品的`三种方式
2. About an Archaeological site考古学：关于一个考古遗址
3. About Biology, the disadvantages of animals living gregariously生物学：生物群居不利的地方
Task 1重复2020年10月家考原题Some people prefer to shop regularly at a store that is close and convenient to them, even though it might be expensive. Others prefer to shop regularly at a store with the lowest prices, even if it is far away. Which do you prefer? Use details and examples to explain your opinion.
Task 2About School of History planning to cancel all monthly lectures and seminars because of the high costs to invite scholars and students lacking interests.
Task 3商业中的 Creative Grouping: 把商品重新进行分类和定位，改变它的 设计、定价，广告方式等，让其获得更好的销量。举了一个手表的例子，传统的手表因为材料很贵，所以售价高昂，但一家公司将手表的材料换成了塑料，并且颜色和样式更加新颖，很快就吸引了很多的顾客。
Task 4About animals as urban exploiters:关于urban exploiter的特征1. change diets 改变了饮食2. change biological features 一些原有的特征没有改变托福写作综合写作
Speculations on why the Vikings left Greenland维京人遗弃聚居地的原因
Reading阅读部分Pros:1. food shortages caused by climate change气候变化，导致食物来源减少
2. tribal conflicts与同一地区的另一个群族的冲突
3. trade embargo of European Continent当地人曾和欧洲人有贸易，但后来被迫暂停了
Cons:1. Vikings could have got sufficient food from fishing even though farming was negatively influenced.气候的变化虽然使farming受到影响，但是科学家们发现，维京人主要以捕鱼为生，他们可以通过捕鱼来获得食物来源。
2. They took away all valuable items, which suggests that if there had been clashes, they would not have enough time to carry those away.他们带走了很多贵重的物品，如果是产生冲突而离开的话应该是没有时间来带走这些贵重物品的。
3. They can get what they need from Piracy and illicit trade.虽然官方贸易暂停了，但是已经可以通过海盗和非法贸易来获得他们需要的东西。
重复2020年11月家考原题Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?People are happier when they give away extra money to charity or a good cause rather than when they spend it on themselves.
参考思路：我同意。原因1. Charity可以让人获得sense of achievement成就感。原因2. Charity可以让人获得public recognition社会认同。