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2017职称英语考试测试题及答案

时间:2017-07-17 职称英语 我要投稿

  Avalanche and Its Safety

  An avalanche is a sudden and rapid flow of snow, often mixed with air and water, down a mountainside. Avalanches are 1 the biggest dangers in the mountains for both life and property.

  All avalanches are caused by an over-burden of material, typically snowpack, that is too massive and unstable for the slope 2 supports it. Determining the critical load, the amount of over-burden which is 3 an avalanche, 4 a complex task involving the evaluation of a number of factors.

  Terrain slopes flatter than 25 degrees or steeper than 60 degrees typically have a low 5 of avalanche. Snow does not 6 significantly on steep slopes; also, snow does not 7 easily on fiat slopes. Human-triggered avalanches have the greatest incidence when the snow's angle of rest1 is 8 35 and 45 degrees; the critical angle, the angle at which the human incidence of avalanches is greatest, is 38 degrees. The rule of thumb2 is: A slope that is 9 enough to hold snow but steep enough to ski has the potential to generate an avalanche, regardless of the angle. Additionally3, avalanche risk increases with 10 ; that is, the more a slope is disturbed by skiers, the more likely it is that an avalanche will occur.

  Due to the complexity of the subject, winter travelling in the backcountry4 is never 100% safe. Good avalanche safety is a continuous 11 , including route selection and examination to the snowpack, weather 12 , and human factors. Several well-known good habits can also 13 the risk. If local authorities issue avalanche risk reports, they should be considered and all warnings should be paid 14 to. Never follow in the tracks of others without your own evaluations; snow conditions are almost certain to have changed since they were made. Observe the terrain and note obvious avalanche paths where plants are 15 or damaged. Avoid traveling below others who might trigger an avalanche.

  1.angle of rest:这里指积雪保持静止的角度。

  2.rule of.thumb:指“a broadly accurate principle,based on experience or practice rather that theory”,即“通用法则,经验法则 ”。

  3.Additionally:是一个副词,用来引人新的事实或论点,意为 “此外”。

  4.backcountry:人烟稀少的地区。

  练习:

  1. A among B of C to D in

  2. A when B that C who D whose

  3. A mostly B likely C clearly D surely

  4. A are B will be C is D was

  5. A weight B form C risk D work

  6. A fall B flow C roll D gather

  7. A fall B flow C roll D gather

  8. A among B between C with D for

  9. A thick B thin C flat D rocky

  10. A use B time C snow D rain

  11. A journey B trip C fact D process

  12. A conditions B reports C forecast D event

  13. A increase B reduce C improve D remove

  14. A price B effort C attention D money

  15. A missing B grown C big D fresh

  答案与题解:

  1.A表达“雪崩是山上可能发生的昀大危险之一 ”的意思,因此应该选择 among(在……之中)。

  2.B从该句的语法结构上来看,此处需要一个关系代词,代替 slope,所以 that是昀佳选择。选项 A、C、D均不符合语法。

  3.B选项 A不符合语法, C和 D符合语法,但不符合常识:过度的雪的积压可能导致雪崩,而不是必定导致雪崩。所以, B是昀佳答案。

  4.C该句的主语是 Determining the critical load,从上下文来看应该使用一般现在时,所以 C是正确答案。

  5.C要确定本题答案的一个有效的方法是排除法。 a low weight/form work of avalanche都不合逻辑,只有 a low risk of avalanche符合上下文的意思。下面的句子解释了 low risk of avalanche的道理,更证实了选 risk是正确的。

  6.D第 6和第 7题可以一起考虑。整个句子的意思是:在坡度大的坡上,雪不会大量堆积。在较为平坦的坡面,雪不会轻易滑动。

  7.B(见 6)

  8.B理解了句子的意思就不难判断选项:雪在静止状态下,角度在 35~45度之间,昀可能发生人为触发的雪崩。between:在……之间。

  9.C这个句子说明的是什么样的山坡昀易发生雪崩,即,A slope that is flat enough to hold snow but steep enough to ski。flat在此做 “平坦”解,与后面的 steep形成反义。

  10.A句中的 that is表明,后半部分是对前半部分的进一步说明。所以,这里的选择要根据下文的意思判断。

  use是昀佳选择,整个句子的意思是:山坡被滑雪者使用的越多,雪崩就越可能发生。

  11.D尽管选项 A、B和 D都能和 continuous搭配,从全段的内容判断,只有 process是昀佳选择,因为该段描写的是如何防备雪崩,及如何做好安全措施等一系列问题。

  12.A选项 A、B、C都可以与 weather搭配,但是根据上下文,只有 A昀为符合文章的内容。

  13.B选项 A不符合句子的意思; C不能和 risk搭配;D也不符合句子的意思,因为不可能完全消除雪崩的隐患。

  14.C该句主句使用的是被动语态,第二个动词是 pay attention to的被动形式。选项 A、B、D均不符合句子的意思。

  15.A该句是作者给出的一系列忠告之一,即,认真观察地形,注意明显的雪崩路径,没有植物或植物被毁坏的地方。选项 B、C、D均不符合句义。


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