Read the following two texts. Answer the questions on each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on your ANSWER SHEET.
Isabel has turned down two job offers in the past year. In 2006, she started her own consulting practice, but by 2008, most of her larger clients had to drop her because of the economy. In 2011, she was undertaking irregular assignments and knew she needed a steady job. The first job she considered was Director of HR for a company in Utah. After the initial interviews, she felt the job fit her except for the location. Still, she flew west to meet the hiring manager. The hiring manager explained that Isabel was the top candidate for the job but that, before she continued with the process, she should better understand the firm's culture. She directed Isabel to several videos of the company's CEO, who regularly appeared in front of the company in costume as part of morale building exercises and expected his senior leaders to do the same. "Even though I was desperate for a job, I knew I couldn't do that," Isabel says. She called the recruiter to turn down the job and explained that she didn't feel there was a cultural fit.
A few months later, she interviewed for another job: a director of employee relations at a local university. After several interviews, the hiring manager told her the job was hers if she wanted it. The job had many positives : it was a low-stress environment, it offered great benefits, and the university was an employee-friendly place. But the job was relatively junior despite the title and Isabel worried it wouldn't be challenging enough. Finally, she turned it down. "It would be great to have a paycheck and great benefits but I would definitely have trouble sleeping at night," she says.
In both cases, she was frank with the hiring managers about why she wasn't taking the jobs."In the past, it felt like dating, I was worried about hurting people's feelings," she says. However, they appreciated her frankness and thanked her for her honesty. She says it was hard to turn down the jobs and it was a risk for her financially but she felt she had to.
26. In 2011, Isabel_______
A. did consulting now and then
B. found a job close to her home
C. refused several job interviews
D. ran a successful consulting firm
27. Isabel turned down the first job offer mainly because of its_______
28. Isabel was dissatisfied with the second job due to its_______
A. junior rifle
B. low benefits
D. lack of challenge
29. Isabel believed that her rejection of the jobs was______
30. According to Isabel, it is important to______
A. look for jobs with little stress
B. look for jobs with great benefits
C. be truthful in declining job offers
D. be cautious in declining job offers
You do not usually get something for nothing. Now, a new study reveals that the evolution of an improved learning ability could come at a particularly high price: an earlier death.
Past experiments have demonstrated that it is relatively easy .through selective breeding to make rats, honey bees and-that great favourite of researchers-fruit flies a lot better at learning. Animals that are better learners should be competitive and, thus, over time, come to dominate a population by natural selection. But improved learning ability does not get selected amongst these animals in the wild. No one really understands why.
Tadeusz Kawecki and his colleagues at the University of Fribourg in Switzerland have measured the effects of improved learning on the lives of fruit flies. The flies were given two different fruits as egg-laying sites. One of these was laced with a bitter additive that could be detected only on contact. The flies were then given the same fruit but without an additive. Flies that avoided the fruit which had been bitter were deemed to have learned from their experience. Their children were reared and the experiment was run again.
After repeating the experiment for 30 generations, the children of the learned flies were com- pared with normal flies. The researchers report in a forthcoming edition of Evolution that although learning ability could be bred into a population of fruit flies, it shortened their lives by 15%. When the researchers compared their learned flies to colonies selectively bred to live long lives, they found even greater differences. Whereas learned flies had reduced their life spans, the long-lived flies learned less well than even average flies.
The authors suggest that evolving an improved learning ability may require a greater investment in the nervous system which takes resources away from processes that delay ageing. However, Dr. Kawecki thinks the effect could also be a by-product of greater brain activity increasing the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), which can increase oxidation in the body and damage health.
No one knows whether the phenomenon holds true for other animals. So, biologists, at least, still have a lot to learn.
31. Past experiments prove selective breeding can make animals better_______
32. In this experiment, scientists observed that________
A. some flies avoided the fruit without an addictive
B. some flies preferred the fruit with an addictive
C. the eggs of the flies were not damaged
D. the impact on the flies did not last long
33. The forthcoming report says that_______
A. long-lived flies are better at laying eggs
B. long-lived flies are poorer in learning
C. learned flies have a relatively long life
D. learned flies live as long as average ones
34. According to Dr.Kawecki, greater brain activity______
A. reduces oxygen consumption
B. regulates the nervous system
C. speeds up the ageing process
D. stabilizes the ageing process
35. We learn from the text that_______
A. the research findings need to be tested further
B. biologists are doing similar research on other animals
C. the animal world usually follows the same universal laws
D. biologists are applying their findings to other areas
Read the texts from a magazine article in which five people talk about tipping in a restaurant. For questions 36-40, match the name of each person to one of the statements (A- G) given below.
Mark your answers on your ANSWER SHEET.
I've always viewed tipping as a way of saying "thank you" to the one who serves me. I believe what is bad is when no tip is left at all. The better the service, the higher the tip. Unless the service is literally perfect, I never tip more than 10% of the bill. Much like the harder teachers in school, I never give an easy “A.”My assessment is honest.
A tip is a "thank you," but in truth, a tip is payment for service. 20% is a standard tip. Servers deserve it for their hard work. Restaurants will never pay more for labor unless they are forced to do so by new laws. Tips make up about 97% of a server's total income. Those tips are needed for survival. So, before servers are paid a living wage, tip 20%.
Why should I pay the difference between what the restaurant is willing to pay the employee and what an acceptable wage is? I do pay 20%, but I hate it. A friend of mine left Europe for New York City, found a job in a restaurant there and ended up making $5,500 a month. Enough above mini- mum wage? How about miners, construction workers, resident doctors, etc? Do they get tipped?
18 -20% for good service is today's standard. The restaurant and its employees arc too polite to tell you this or to put it on their menus, but that is their expectation and you need to understand that. I believe it is good manners to respect this. To do otherwise is to be openly rude. If you disagree, you arc wise to cat elsewhere, as you are hurting a hardworking professional.
Tipping has gotten out of control. I always had thought it was 15%, and now suddenly servers have made it 20%. I tip 15%, and that's it. If the service is really superior, then I work higher from there. Interesting to be told ,“If you can't afford to tip 20%, then you should cat at home.” If all those people stayed away, the restaurant would not even be in business.
Now match the name of each person (36 - 40) to the appropriate statement.
Note: there are two extra statements.
37. Daniel38. Kate
A. It's rude not to tip.
B. I do tip, though I don't like it.
C. Tipping shouldn't be compulsory.
D. Tips are essential to servers' survival.
E. If you don't tip, you are punishing the server.
F. I think the current tipping standard is too high.
G. My tip faithfully reflects how good the service is.
Read the following text from which five sentences have been removed. Choose from the sentences A-G the most suitable one to fill each numbered gap in the text (41-45). There are TWO extra sentences that you do not need to use. Mark your answers on your ANSWER SHEET.
In 2009, the number of hungry people in the world reached one billion for the first time. It's difficult not to be shocked by the fact that more than one in seven people in the world do not have enough to eat.41Hunger kills more people per year than diseases such as AIDS, malaria and TB combined.
The UN estimates that almost two thirds of the world's hungry people are in Asia, which is of course the world' s most populous continent.42 Although this region has a much lower population than Asia, it has the highest percentage of hungry people. Almost all of the rest are in Latin America, North Africa and the Caribbean, In the richest regions of the world there are only a tiny number of people who don' t have enough to eat.
There are many reasons for world hunger. They include wars, droughts, floods, and the over- use of fanning land.43Many people also blame greedy businessmen for pushing up the prices of basic foods in the global market. But the most important reason, quite simply, is poverty, which has increased recently due to the financial crisis of 2008.
Although many people make the obvious point that there would be less hunger if the global population were smaller, few people would argue that there is not enough food to go around. 44 In the last 50 years, global food production has risen even more quickly than the global population. There are many areas of the world in which people generally have more than enough food.45The answer to world hunger, therefore, may be a balanced food distribution around the whole world. Everyone will have enough to eat, but not overeat.
A. The basic problem seems to be not a lack of food, but its distribution.
B. More than a quarter are in sub-Saharan Africa.
C. All these factors affect food production.
D. It takes the effort of every country to fight against world hunger.
E. In those places, obesity is a far bigger problem than hunger.
F. Those places need far more food than they actually get.
G. By the end of this year, more than 35 million people will have died as a result of not having enough to eat.
阅读 Part D：
Read the following text from which 10 words have been removed. Choose from the words A - 0 the most suitable one to fill each numbered gap in the text (46-55). There are FIVE extra words that you do not need to use. Mark your answers on your ANSWER SHEET.
I can't believe the kind of rubbish that some people call art. Yesterday, my girlfriend dragged me to a modern art 46to see an exhibition she had read about in the paper. It was five or six so-called installations made of bits of plastic, wood and paper that 47 just to have been thrown on the floor. It was a mess, basically--just like the floor in my sister' s house when my two-year- old nephew' s left all his toys out, but less 48Come to think of it,49you had given those bits of plastic, wood and paper to my nephew, he could probably have50something just as good. I guess, sometimes, the cleaners end up throwing art like that in the bins at the end of the day,51 they must find it hard to work out what' s an exhibit and what' s just 52
I think that if a painting or an installation looks like something I could have done myself in fifteen minutes, it doesn't53to be called art. But when I say that, people like my girlfriend say I' m “uncultured.” I think a lot of the people who say they 54 the kind of stuff we saw yester- day are just pretending--deep down they know it' s rubbish but they don' t want to be the first one to admit it because, unlike me, they' re 55of being looked down on.
26.A 27.B 28.D 29.A 30.C
31.D 32.A 33.B 34.C 35.A
36.G 37.D 38.B 39.A 40.F
41.G 42.B 43.C 44.A 45.E
46.H 47.M 48.D 49.I 50.E
51.C 52.J 53.F 54.B 55.A