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托福语法:过去完成进行时形式与用法

时间:2018-03-08 报考指南 我要投稿

  在所有的英语考试中,无论托福,托福junior,SAT,SSAT,GRE,GMAT等,都有侧重在语法方面的考察,其中动词是主要一项。以下是小编为大家搜索整理的托福过去完成进行时形式与用法,希望能给大家带来帮助! 更多精彩内容请及时关注我们应届毕业生考试网!

  A 形式

  过去完成进行时是由 had been+现在分词构成,因此无人称变化:

  I had/I’d been working

  they had not/hadn’t been working

  had you been working?

  had you not/hadn’t you been working?

  凡不能用于进行时的动词均不能有这种时态,但动词want(有时还有wish)除外:

  The boy was delighted with his new knife.He had been wanting one fora long time.

  男孩对新小刀很高兴。他早就想要一把了。

  注意:这一时态没有被动语态,像They had been picking ap-ples(他们一直在摘苹果)这样的句子,最近似的被动式是Ap-ples had been picked(苹果已摘完),实际上这两种说法意思并不相同。(参见下面B3。)

  B 用法

  过去完成进行时与过去完成时之间的关系,同现在完成进行时与现在完成时之间的关系相同。(参见第192节。)

  1 表示动作在所说的过去某一时刻之前就已开始并持续到那一时刻或者在那一时刻之前刚刚停止时,常常可以用两个时态中的任一个(参见第192节A):

  It was now six and he was tired because he had worked since dawn.

  已经6点了,他感到很累,因为他从天亮起一直工作到现在。相当于:

  It was now six and he was tired because he had been working since dawn.

  那时正是6点,他因从一大早就干活而累了。

  2 用过去完成时表示的反复的动作,有时可以作为一种连续的动作用过去完成进行时表示(参见第192节B):

  he had tried five times to get her on the phone.

  他曾试着打了五次电话要找她。

  He had been trying to get her on the phone.

  他一直在试着打电话找她。

  3 一个用过去完成时表达的单一动作和一个用过去完成进行时表达的动作不同(参见第192节C):

  By six o’clock he had repaired the engine.

  到6点钟时他已经修好发动机了。(这项工作已经完成。)

  但He had been repairing the engine(他一直在修理发动机)仅告诉我们他在前面的时间/前半小时里做什么,而并不告诉我们这项工作是否完成。

  另一个区别是,由过去完成进行时表示的动作常持续进行直到或甚至超过说话的时间(这个时间是在过去)。而由过去完成时表示的动作虽可以发生在这一说话时间之前不久,但动作与说话之间可以有较长的时间间隔:

  He had been painting the door.

  他当时一直在油漆门。(油漆大概还未干。)

  He had painted the door.

  【相关阅读】

  托福过去完成时在间接引语中的用法

  A 引导动词如果是一般过去时,直接引语中的现在完成时在间接引语中要变成过去完成时:

  He said,‘I’ve been in England for ten years.’

  他说:“我已经在英国住了十年了。”相当于:

  He said that he had been in England for ten years.

  他说他在英国已经住了十年。

  He said,‘When you’ve worked for a year you’ll get a rise.’

  他说:“你工作一年之后,会加工资。”相当于:

  He said that when I’d worked for a year I’d get a rise.

  他说我工作一年之后会加工资。

  She said,‘I’ll lend you the book as soon as I have read it myself.’

  她说:“我一看完这本书就借给你。”相当于:

  She said she’d lend me the book as soon as she’d read it herself.

  她说她一看完那本书就借给我。

  B 直接引语中的一般过去时通常也作同样的变化:

  He said,‘I knew her well.’

  他说:“我过去很了解她。”相当于:

  He said that he had known her well.

  他说他过去很了解她。