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时间:2017-06-14 四级 我要投稿






  Archaeology is a source of history, not just a humble auxiliary discipline. Archaeological data are historical documents in their own right, not mere illustrations to written texts. Just as much as any other historian, an archaeologist studies and tries to reconstitute the process that has created the human world in which we live —— and us ourselves in so far as we are each creatures of our age and social environment. Archaeological data are all changes in the material world resulting from human action or, more succinctly, the fossilized results of human behavior. The sum total of these constitutes what may be called the archaeological record. This record exhibits certain peculiarities and deficiencies the consequences of which produce a rather superficial contrast between archaeological history and the more familiar kind based upon written records.

  Not all human behavior fossilizes. The words I utter and you hear as vibrations in the air are certainly human changes in the material world and may be of great historical significance. Yet they leave no sort of trace in the archaeological records unless they are captured by a dictaphone or written down by a clerk. The movement of troops on the battlefield may "change the course of history," but this is equally ephemeral from the archaeologist's standpoint. What is perhaps worse, most organic materials are perishable. Everything made of wood, hide, wool, linen, grass, hair, and similar materials will decay and vanish in dust in a few years or centuries, save under very exceptional conditions. In a relatively brief period the archaeological record is reduced to mere scraps of stone, bone, glass, metal, and earthenware. Still modern archaeology, by applying appropriate techniques and comparative methods, aided by a few lucky finds from peat-bogs, deserts, and frozen soils, is able to fill up a good deal of the gap.


  考古学是历史学的一个来源,而不是地位卑微的辅助学科。考古学资料本身也是一种 历史文献,而不仅仅是文字资料的例证。正象任何一位历史学家那样,考古学家研究调查并尽力去重构一个过程。这个过程创造了我们生活的人类世界,也创造了我们自身,因为我们都是我们所处的时代和社会环境的产物。考古学的资料就是人类行为所造成的物质变化。更简洁地说,是石化了的人类行为。这些变化的总和构成了我们所说的考古学记录。这些记录自有其独特和不足之处,因而导致人们对考古历史和更熟悉的文字记载历史进行相当肤浅的对比。




  From Boston to Los Angeles, from New York City to Chicago to Dallas, museums are either planning, building, or wrapping up wholesale expansion programs. These programs already have radically altered facades and floor plans or are expected to do so in the not-too-distant future.

  In New York City alone, six major institutions have spread up and out into the air space and neighborhoods around them or are preparing to do so.

  The reasons for this confluence of activity are complex, but one factor is a consideration everywhere -- space. With collections expanding, with the needs and functions of museums changing, empty space has become a very precious commodity.

  Probably nowhere in the country is this more true than at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, which has needed additional space for decades and which received its last significant facelift ten years ago. Because of the space crunch, the Art Museum has become increasingly cautious in considering acquisitions and donations of art, in some cases passing up opportunities to strengthen its collections.

  Deaccessing -- or selling off -- works of art has taken on new importance because of the museum's space problems. And increasingly, curators have been forced to juggle gallery space, rotating one masterpiece into public view while another is sent to storage.

  Despite the clear need for additional gallery and storage space, however, "the museum has no plan, no plan to break out of its envelope in the next fifteen years," according to Philadelphia Museum of Art's president.





  在我国,也许没有任何其他地方比费城艺术博物馆更符合这个事实。这个博物馆几十年来一直需要额外的空间,十年前进行了最后一次重大的翻新。由于空间紧缺,该艺术博物馆在考虑购买与受赠艺术品已越来越谨慎,有时甚至放弃增强艺术收藏的机会。由于博物馆的空间问题,将艺术品脱手或者说卖掉已经有了新的重要意义。 博物馆馆长们被迫巧妙轮换利用陈列馆的空间,轮流着把一些艺术杰作向公众展出,而把另一些送入存储室中。