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时间:2017-06-13 四级 我要投稿





  Andrew Carnegie

  Andrew Carnegie, known as the King of Steel, built the steel industry in the United States, and, in the process, became one of the wealthiest men in America. His success resulted in part from his ability to sell the product and in part from his policy of expanding during periods of economic decline, when most of his competitors were reducing their investments.

  Carnegie believed that individuals should progress through hard work, but he also felt strongly that the wealthy should use their fortunes for the benefit of society. He opposed charity, preferring instead to provide educational opportunities that would allow others to help themselves. "He who dies rich, dies disgraced, " he often said.Among his more noteworthy contributions to society are those that bear his name, including the Carnegie Institute of Pittsburgh, which has a library, a museum of fine arts, and a museum of national history. He also founded a school of technology that is now part of Carnegie-Mellon University. Other philanthropic gifts are the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace to promote understanding between nations, the Carnegie Institute of Washington to fund scientific research, and Carnegie Hall to provide a center for the arts.

  Few Americans have been left untouched by Andrew Carnegie's generosity. His contributions of more than five million dollars established 2,500 libraries in small communities throughout the country and formed the nucleus of the public library system that we all enjoy today.


  被称作钢铁大王的安德鲁·卡内基在美国建立了钢铁工业。在这个过程中,他变成了美国最富有的人之一。 他的成功,部分来自于他销售产品的能力,部分来自于经济萧条时期的扩充策略。在萧条时期,他的多数对手都在缩减投资。

  卡内基认为个人应该通过努力工作来获得进展,但他也强烈地感到有钱人应该运用他们的财富来为社会谋 取福利。他反对施舍救济,更愿意提供教育机会,使别人自立。卡内基经常说:"富有着死去的人死得可耻。"他对社会的较重要的贡献都以他的名字命名。这些贡献包括匹兹堡卡内基学校。这个学校有一个图书馆,一个美术馆和一个国家历史博物馆;他还创立了一所技术学校,这所学校现在是卡内基梅隆大学的一部分;其他的慈善捐赠有为促进国家间了解的"卡内基国际和平基金",为科学研究提供经费的华盛顿卡内基学院以及给各种艺术活动提供活动中心的卡内基音乐厅。

  安德鲁·卡内基的慷慨大度几乎影响到每个美国人的生活。由于他超过五百万美元的捐款,2500 个图书馆得以建立起来,遍布在美国各地的小村镇,形成了我们今天还在享用的公共图书馆系统的核心。


  American Revolution

  The American Revolution was not a revolution in the sense of a radical or total change. It was not a sudden and violent overturning of the political and social framework, such as later occurred in France and Russia, when both were already independent nations. Significant changes were ushered in, but they were not breathtaking. What happened was accelerated evolution rather than outright revolution. During the conflict itself people went on working and praying, marrying and playing. Most of them were not seriously disturbed by the actual fighting, and many of the more isolated communities scarcely knew that a war was on. America's War of Independence heralded the birth of three modern nations. One was Canada, which received its first large influx of English-speaking population from the thousands of loyalists who fled there from the United States. Another was Australia, which became a penal colony now that America was no longer available for prisoners and debtors. The third newcomer —— the United States —— based itself squarely on republican principles.

  Yet even the political overturn was not so revolutionary as one might suppose. In some states, notably Connecticut and Rhode Island, the war largely ratified a colonial self-rule already existing. British officials, everywhere ousted, were replaced by a home-grown governing class, which promptly sought a local substitute for king and Parliament.


  美国革命其实并不算是一场革命,因为它并未导致完全的和彻底的变化。 这次革命并不是对政治和社会框架的一次突然和猛烈的.颠覆,象后来在已经是独立国家的法国和俄国所爆发的革命那样。革命带来了重大的变化,但并非翻天覆地,所发生的只是进化的加速,而不是一场彻底的革命;在冲突期间,人们仍然上班、做礼拜、结婚、玩耍。多数人并没有受到实际战斗的严重影响。许多较闭塞的社区对这场战争几乎一无所知。美国独立战争宣布了三个现代国家的诞生,其中一个是加拿大。加拿大的第一大批讲英语的流入人口来自于成千上万英王的效忠者,这些人从美国逃到了加拿大。另一个国家是澳大利亚,因为美国不再是容纳罪犯和欠债者的国度了,澳大利亚就变成了一个惩治罪犯的殖民地(注:独立战争前,英国政府将罪犯流放到美国)。第三个国家就是美国,它完全建立在共和原则基础上。