Such __47___ philosophies grow out of different traditions and power structures. In Europe and Japan，universities are __48___ only to a ministry of education, which sets academic standards and provides money.
Centralization(集权化) is likely to __49__ that all students are equipped with roughly the same resources and perform at roughly the same level. On the other hand, it may also __50__ the testing of different ideas. “When they make mistakes, they make big ones,” says Robert Rosenzweig, president of the Association of American universities. “They set a system in wrong directions, and it’s like piloting a super ship.”
III. Reading comprehension:
Apes and humans beings share a lot in common when it comes to behavior. The evidence taken from the observation of the behavior of apes and children suggests that there are three causes for the outbreak of fighting and the exhibition of __51__ by individuals.
One of the most common causes of fighting among both children and apes was over the ___52___ of external objects. The argument over the ownership of any desired object---food, clothes, toys, females, and the affection of others--- was sufficient reason to __53___ force. In a case of monkeys’ disagreement over females. thirty females were killed. Two points are of particular interest to notice about these fights for possession.
In the first place, the fights are often carried to such an extreme that they end in the __54__ destruction of the objects of common desire. Toys are torn to pieces and females are killed.
In the second place it is observable, that __55__ occurs when an object is desired by only one person or by someone else. There were many cases where toys and other objects which had been thrown away as useless were __56___ defended by their owners when they became the object of some other child’s desire.
Another cause of aggression is the tendency for children and apes are greatly to __57__ the invading of a stranger into their group. A new child in the class may be laughed at, isolated, and disliked. A new monkey may be bitten to death. It is interesting to note that anger occurs when a stranger comes from the __58__ species. Monkeys do not mind being __59__ by a goat or a rat. Children do not object when animals are introduced to the group. As a matter of fact, such newcomers are often __60__ . But when monkeys meet a new monkey or children a strange child, aggression often occurs. This strongly suggests that the reason for the aggression is fundamentally possessiveness. The ___61__ of the newcomers is feared. The present members of the group feel that there will be more competitors for the food or the attention of the adults.
Finally, another common source of fighting among children is a frustration or failure in their own ___62__ .A child will be stopped either by __63__ causes such as bad weather or illness from doing something he wishes to do, for example, sail his boat or ride the bicycle. Sometimes the activity may be __64__ because of the opposition of some adult. The child may also frustrate itself by __65___, through lack of skill or strength, to complete successfully some desired activity. Such a child will then in the ordinary sense become “naughty”. He will be in a bad or unfriendly temper.
51. A. fulfillment B. excitement C. isolation D. aggressiveness
52. A. usage B. possession C. value D. collection
53. A. turn to B. drive away C. come over D. make into
54. A. moderate B. subtle C. complete D. temporary
55. A. conflict B. negotiation C. agreement D. donation
56. A. reluctantly B. violently C. unwillingly D. peacefully
57.A. ignore B. accept C. prove D. hate
58. A. similar B. modest C. strong D. reliable
59. A. observed B. protected C. joined D. spoiled
60. A. offensive B. considerate C. generous D. welcomed
61. A. strength B. attitude C. competition D. emotion
62. A. knowledge B. activity C. study D. personality
63. A. natural B. physical C. financial D. academic
64. A. enhanced B. operated C. extended D. prevented
65. A. learning B. falling C. imitating D. refusing
Around the world coral reefs(珊瑚礁) are facing threats brought by climate change and great changes in sea temperatures. While ocean warming has been the primary focus for scientists and ocean policy managers, cold events can also whiten corals. A new study by scientists compared damage to corals caused by heat as well as cold stress. The results show that cool temperatures can cause more damage in the short term, but heat is more destructive in the long run.
Climate change is widely known to produce warming conditions in the oceans, but extreme cold-water events have become more frequent and serious as well. I 2010, for example, coral reefs around the world faced one of the coldest winters and one of the hottest summers on record.