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I.Rationale and Significance of the Proposed Study
Drama translation is confronted with the contradiction between performability and faithful cultural transmission, which is accelerated by the difference the source culture and the target culture:the greater the difference, the more challenging the transaltion dilemma.Oscar Wilde’s drama, with ite humorous,lofty and trenchant language, is especially formidable for Chinese translators. However, Skopos theory has provided solid theoretical foundation for solving the contradiction.In this thesis,skopos theory of German Functionalist School is applied to a coparative study of two Chinese versions of The Importance of Being Earnest.
II.Literature Review (Background)
There are three Chinese versions of The Importance of Being Earnest, Qian Zhi-de(China Mainland) ‘s version, Yu Kwang-chung(China Taiwan)‘s version, Chang Nam-fung(China Hongkong)‘s version.Yu’s version is most frequently used in published books,living theater and films.
A number of people have compare these three versions from the perspective of culture turn theory, of relevance theory of translation, of drama translation, of domestication and foreignization ect. These theses use different theories compare different aspects of the Chinese versions, which include compare tranlsation of characters’ names, pun, culture-loaded words, antithesis.All these theses are from students of different universities and colleges.Most of them hold the idea that Yu’s version is better than others. Until now, there is no published book about the comparison of these three versions and there is no authoritative or famous people have any studies about it.Also,skopos theory of German Functionalist School is applied to a coparative study of two Chinese versions of The Importance of Being Earnest and there is no similar perspective with mine to compare the Chinese versions.
III.Aims and Objectives/Research Questions/Problems to be Investigated
1.To summarize two translators’ tranlsation principles,methods,strategies and skills.
2.To know why translator will translate the drama in that way under different purposes
3.To summarize the tranlation methods of drama
1.Has Yu Kwang-chung applied Skopos theory in his translation of The Importance of Being Earnest
2.Has Chang Nam-fung applied Skopos theory in his translation of The Importance of Being Earnest
3.Why their versions are so different?
4.What are their translate purposes ?
5.Which version can achieve translators’ original goal
Skopos theory is a concept from the field oftranslation studies. It provides an insight into the nature of translation as a purposeful activity, which is directly applicable to everytranslation project.It was established by the German linguist Hans Vermeer and comprises the idea that translating and interpreting should primarily take into account the function of both the source and target text.
Skopos theory focuses on translation as an activity with an aim or purpose, and on the intended addressee or audience of the translation. To translate means to produce a target text in a target setting for a target purpose and target addressees in target circumstances. In skopos theory, the status of the source text is lower than it is in equivalence-based theories of translation. The source is an "offer of information", which the translator turns into an "offer of information" for the target audience.Paul Kussmaul writes about this theory: "the functional approach has a great affinity with Skopos theory. The function of a translation is dependent on the knowledge, expectations, values and norms of the target readers, who are again influenced by the situation they are in and by the culture. These factors determine whether the function of the source text or passages in the source text can be preserved or have to be modified or even changed.
From the perspective of Skopos, Yu Kwang-chung’s and Chang Nam-fung’s translation stratages of ensuring both faithful transimission and perfoamability with the emphasis on the latter are successful; their translation, in turn, justifies the feasibility of Skopos Theory in the field of drama translation.
V.Outline/Organization of the Proposed Study
Chapter one A Review of Skopos Theory
1.1 The Formation and Development of Skopos Theory
1.2 The Theoretical Framework of Skopos Theory
1.2.1 The Basic Concepts of Skopos Theory
1.2.2 The Translation Rules of Skopos Theory
1.2.3 The Translation Criterion of Skopos Theory
1.3 The Contributions and Limitations of Skopos Theory
Chapter two An Overview of Drama and Drama Translation
2.1 An Overview of Drama
2.2 An Overview of Drama Translation
2.2.1 The History of Drama Translation
2.2.2 The Principles of Drama Translation
2.2.3 The Evaluation Criterion of Drama Translation
Chapter Three A Case Study of The Importance of Being Earnest
3.1 An Introduction to Oscar Wilde and His Play
3.1.1 An Introduction to Oscar Wilde
3.1.2 An Introduction to The Importance of Being Earnest of Oscar Wilde’s Play
3.2 An Introduction to the Chinese Translation of Oscar Wilde’s Play
3.3 The Application of Skopos Theory to the Comparison of the Two Chinese Versions
3.3.1 A Comparison of the Skopos
3.3.2 A Comparison of the Translation Strategies
3.3.3 A Comparison of the Translation Methods
3.3.4 A Comparison of the Translation Skills
3.4 A Comparison of the Translation of the Two Chinese Versions
3.4.1 The Translation of the Characters’ Names
3.4.2 The Translation of Pun
3.4.3 The Translation of Culture-loaded Words
3.4.4 The Translation of Antithesis
3.5 The Inspiration from the Comparative Study
VI.Tentative Conclusion and Potential Difficulties
Tentative Conclusion :
Through the application of Skopos Theory to the comparative study of the two Chinese versions of The Importance of Being Earnest, this thesis aims to illustrate the decisive influence of the purpose of translation on the two Chinese versions in the process of translation,justify that Skopos theory is applicale to such kind of literary translation as drama translation and can provide theoretical basis,systematic guidance,which is quite pratical and appropriate for drama translation in pratice.
1.Availabe literature is not enough
2.Not familiar with skopos theory
3.The comparision of two versions may not be perfect enough
Gentzler,Edwin. Comtemporary Translation Theories. Shanghai:Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press,2004
Munday,Jeremy. Introducing Tranlsation Studies:Theories and Applications. London:Routledge,2002
Wilde·Oscar. The Plays of Oscar Wilde. London: Wordswoeth Editions Limited, 2000
Abrams,M.H. The North Anthology of English Literature:The Victorian Age. London:W.W. North & Company,1999
谭卫国(Tang Weiguo), 蔡龙权(Cai Longquan). 新编英汉互译教程， 上海：华东理工出版社，2011
王韵(Wang Yun)，语言张力的再现——The Importance of Being Earnest两个中译本比较，解放军外国语学院学报，2008
金惠康 (Jin Huikang). 跨文化交际翻译续编，北京：中国对外翻译出版社，2004
张南峰(Chang Nam-fung). 王尔德喜剧选，福州：海峡文艺出版社，1990